Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in the stool of people with hepatitis A.
It is usually spread by close personal contact and sometimes by eating food or drinking water containing HAV. A person who has hepatitis A can easily pass the disease to others within the same household.
Hepatitis A can cause:
- "flu-like" illness
- jaundice (yellow skin or eyes, dark urine)
- severe stomach pains and diarrhea (children)
People with hepatitis A often have to be hospitalized (up to about 1 person in 5).
Adults with hepatitis A are often too ill to work for up to a month.
Sometimes, people die as a result of hepatitis A (about 3-6 deaths per 1,000 cases).
Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A.
What is Typhoid Fever?
Typhoid (typhoid fever) is a serious disease caused by a bacteria called Salmonella Typhi.
Typhoid causes a high fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash. If it is not treated, it can kill up to 30% of people who get it.
Some people who get typhoid become "carriers," who can spread the disease to others.
Generally, people get typhoid from contaminated food or water. Typhoid occurs in developing countries but is rare in the Western world. Typhoid strikes about 21 million people a year around the world and kills about 200,000.
Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid. There are two types of typhoid vaccine. One is an inactivated (killed) vaccine given as a shot. The other is a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine which is taken orally (by mouth). Both vaccines are 50 – 80 % effective in preventing the disease.
What is Yellow Fever?
Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America.
Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. It cannot be spread person to person by direct contact.
People with yellow fever disease usually have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever can cause:
- fever and flu-like symptoms
- jaundice (yellow skin or eyes)
- bleeding from multiple body sites
- liver, kidney, respiratory and other organ failure
- death (20% - 50% of serious cases)
How can I prevent Yellow Fever?
Yellow fever vaccine
Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever.
Yellow fever vaccine is given only at designated vaccination centers.
After getting the vaccine, you should be given a stamped and signed "International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis" (yellow card). This certificate becomes valid 10 days after vaccination and is good for 10 years.
You will need this card as proof of vaccination to enter certain countries. Travelers without proof of vaccination could be given the vaccine upon entry or detained for up to 6 days to make sure they are not infected.
Discuss your itinerary with your doctor or nurse before you get your yellow fever vaccination. Consult your health department or visit CDC’s travel information website to learn yellow fever vaccine requirements and recommendations for different countries.
Other preventive measures
Another way to prevent yellow fever is to avoid mosquito bites by:
- staying in well-screened or air-conditioned areas,
- wearing clothes that cover most of your body,
- using an effective insect repellent, such as those containing DEET.