Hepatitis A is a virus that affects the liver which is spread through contaminated food and water. It is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases acquired during travel.
Typhoid fever is most often spread through food and water contaminated by the feces of infected people who prepare food without properly washing their hands. The risk of typhoid fever is highest in developing countries with poor sanitation, especially in southern Asia (India, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh). The typhoid vaccine is available as an injection or in tablet form (oral).
Yellow fever is a serious viral disease spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. The yellow fever vaccine may be a requirement to enter certain countries. The vaccine is being administered in fractional doses during the current vaccine shortage.
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a potentially serious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory system. Pertussis can cause complications such as pneumonia, seizures, brain damage or death. Young infants who have not been immunized against pertussis are more at risk of complications.
The pertussis vaccine is recommended for pregnant women ideally between 27-32 weeks pregnancy, and all adults who have not received a reinforcing dose of the pertussis vaccine in adulthood.
Shingles, also known as the herpes zoster virus, is a blister-type rash along a nerve pathway that causes pain, and paresthesia (sensation of pricking or tingling). Anyone who has had chickenpox is at risk for developing shingles. The Shingrix vaccine provides over 90% protection against shingles after receiving two doses of the vaccine, and is recommended for adults 50 years of age and older.
Dukoral is a drinkable vaccine that helps prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) and cholera. ETEC is a common cause of diarrhea in travellers in many parts of the world.
HPV, more commonly known as Human Papillomavirus infections are the most common sexually transmitted diseases that can affect both men and women. HPV has been associated with different cancers in men and women including cervical cancer, vulvar and vaginal cancers, anal cancer, throat cancer, and penile cancer. It is also the cause of anal and genital warts.