Travelers visiting the tropics are exposed to significant illnesses that are transmitted by mosquitoes and
other insects. A few of those diseases are malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, yellow fever and
Japanese encephalitis. Along with vaccinations and preventative medication (where applicable), travelers
should use protective measures to avoid being bitten.
What is Japanese Encephalitis and how is it transmitted?
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a potentially serious viral infection spread through the bite of an infected mosquito.
Where is the risk?
The risk of JE occurs mainly in rural agricultural areas in Asia and parts of the western Pacific. The risk is very low for most travellers but varies depending on destination, types of activities, duration, and season of travel.
What are the symptoms?
Most people infected with JE do not have symptoms. Symptoms can develop between 5-15 days after being infected and can be as mild as fever, headache and vomiting. More serious symptoms of encephalitis (swelling of the brain) can follow...
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is a potentially serious and life threatening disease caused by the bacteria
How is typhoid fever transmitted?
Typhoid fever is most often spread through food and water contaminated by the feces of infected people who prepare food without properly washing their hands.
Where is the risk?
The risk of typhoid is highest in developing countries with poor sanitation, especially in southern Asia (India, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh). Other areas of risk include East and Southeast Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. The risk for travellers increases with duration of stay, for those visiting friends and relatives, for those visiting smaller villages and
rural areas, and for those with adventurous eating habits.